Catholic Institute of West Africa



Brief Historical Background of the Department/Programme.

On the 8th day of December, 1981, the Catholic Institute of West Africa (CIWA), Port Harcourt, began with three departments, namely; Biblical, Dogmatic and Pastoral, for the study of theology and related disciplines in the Socio – cultural context of West Arica. Between 1981 – 2004, the following departments, namely; Moral Theology (1986/1987 Academic Session); Canon Law (1991 Academic Session); and Pastoral/Communication Studies (2003/2004 Academic Session), were further created. CIWA is in affiliation with the Pontifical Urban University, Rome, and the University of Calabar, Nigeria (since February 2, 1988).

The Philosophy programme started with a Diploma in Philosophy in the 2010/2011 Academic session to serve as remedial for Catholic Religious desirous of pursuing Licentiate in Sacred Theology (STL). Following the need to gain autonomy as a full-fledged department, the Department of Philosophy took off during the 2018/2019 Academic School Year. The department is headed by Rev. Fr. Dr. Francis Usoh.


Whereas Philosophy is an attempt to understand some fundamental and important issues of life, namely; questions about the existence of God, truth about the world and morality, among others, the philosophy of the programme is to help the students to use the tools of logic and reason to analyze ways in which humans experience the world. It will further teach the students critical thinking and reasoning.

The department of philosophy thus offers numerous and insightful courses designed to enable the students to use the tools of philosophy to understand the language used to describe the world, and their place within it. It enables them to take a logical approach to addressing challenging questions and examining core issues, correct reason and evaluate the reasoning of others, as well as discuss them sensibly.

The Bachelor of philosophy is, therefore, designed to help in developing the mental capacity of its students for effective appreciation of their African values, philosophies, worldview, as well as aid in building up national interest and cultural consciousness in them.


The vision of the Department of Philosophy is in tandem with that of the Institute whose guiding principle is the words of Saint Augustine, a co-patron of CIWA, (Saint Thomas Aquinas is the other patron of CIWA), which the Institute has adopted as a motto – Semper Agens, Semper Quietus; a synthesis of Action and Contemplation; of Study and Prayer as general landmark of intellectual work and scholarship in a Christian context.


  1. The hallmark of philosophical studies is critical thinking. The Programme is to help the students to know that problems often have multiple remedies thereby teaching them to approach such problems from a number of perspectives.
  2. To help students to be moral, logical and intellectually alert so as to enable them to handle issues that may confront them in their respective life’s endeavours.
  3. To aid the students to recognize an argument, not in the sense of disagreement, but whether sound reasons are offered for some claims.
  4. To assist the students to see through other people’s stated views to their unstated assumptions, and use the tools of philosophy to articulate their values and their aim of belief.
  5. To encourage the students to gain patience and appreciate the need for attention to in depth analysis and the central fact of human condition: morally.
  6. To prepare candidates for further studies in the church and philosophy related fields.
  7. To train students to appreciate African values as well as prepare them for leadership in society saddled with serious social, political and cultural crisis and biases.


Applicants for the Bachelor Degree Programme in Philosophy must have:

  1. Five credits, including English and Mathematics in the WASC/GCE/NECO or SSCE examinations at only one sitting.


  1. Six credits and above including English Language and Christian Religious Knowledge, at not more than two sittings of either WASC/GCE/NECO /SSCE examinations taken; or an applicant with an additional Diploma (at Merit or Credit level) or degree in Christian Religious Studies or an NCE (Religious major or a related discipline from a recognized institution may be allowed to complete the Programme in three instead of four years.


The BA Programme in Philosophy is structured within a four year or three year period. Students who complete a four-year programme must have scored a minimum of 140 credit units or a maximum of 154 credit units. Students who complete a three year programme must have scored a minimum of 136 credit units or a maximum of 140 credit units. One credit unit is equivalent to one student teacher contact hour per week through the semester for either lectures or tutorials.The programme comprises of 77 courses making up 154 credit units which follow these categorizations:

General Studies (GSS):                     12 courses, 24 credit units

BA Compulsory Courses (BA. PHIL): 59 courses, 118 credit units

Elective Courses (ELC):                    6 courses, 12 credit units

General Studies Courses

These are compulsory for students in the first and second years; taken as foundational courses in the Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy.

  1. PHIL Compulsory Courses

These are the core courses that are basic for obtaining the Bachelors of Arts Degree in Philosophy. They must be passed before graduation.

 Elective Courses

These are the courses within or outside the discipline from which students may select and credit them for the purpose of fulfilling the minimum requirements for the award of the degree or to make up for the required credit units.



 YEAR 1 (100 LEVEL)


1.PHL 101Introduction to Philosophy I2
2.PHL 111History of Ancient Philosophy I2
3.PHL 121Introduction to Ethics I2
4.PHL 131Introduction to Logic I2
5.PHL 141Research Methodology2



1.GSS 101Use of English I2
2.GSS 111Philosophy and Logic2



(The student has choose two underlisted courses)

1.RES161New Testament Greek I2
2.RES171Latin I2
3.PHL 151Introduction to Psychology I2


YEAR 1 (100 LEVEL)


1.PHL 102Introduction to Philosophy II2
2.PHL 112History of Ancient Philosophy II2
3.PHL 122Introduction to Ethics II2
4.PHL 132Introduction to Logic II2
5.PHL 142Introduction to African Philosophy2



1GSS 102Use of English II2
2GSS 112History and Philosophy of Science2



(The student has choose two underlisted courses)

RES142New Testament Greek II2
RES152Latin II2
PHL 152Introduction to Sociology I2


YEAR 2: (200 LEVEL)


1.PHL 211History of Medieval Philosophy I3
2.PHL 221African Philosophy II2
3.PHL 231Introduction to Epistemology2
4.PHL 241Philosophical Anthropology I2
5.PHL 251Symbolic Logic I3
6.PHL 261Introduction to Metaphysics2
7.PHL 271Application of Basic Methods of Philosophical Analysis2



1GSS 201Introduction to Computer Studies2



(Choose two from the underlisted courses)

1PHL 281Introduction to Psychology II2
2CMS 271Communication for Leadership2
3RES 281Religion, peace and Human Rights2


YEAR 2 (200 LEVEL)


1PHL 212History of Medieval Philosophy II2
2PHL 222History of Modern Philosophy I2
3PHL 232Symbolic Logic II2
4PHL 242Social and Political Philosophy I2
5PHL 252Philosophy of Religion I2
6PHL 262Philosophical Anthropology II2



1GSS 202Nigerian Peoples and Culture2
2GSS 212Computer Applications2



(Choose two from the underlisted courses)

1PHL 272Comparative Philosophy2
2PHL 282Introduction to Sociology II2
3RES 282Varieties of religious Experience and Expression2


YEAR 3 (300 LEVEL)


1PHL 301History of Modern Philosophy II2
2PHL 311Metaphysics II2
3PHL 321Philosophy of Religion II2
4PHL 331Philosophy of Science I2
5PHL 341Special Ethics2
6PHL 351Epistemology II2
7PHL 361Philosophy of Social Science2



(Choose two from the underlisted courses)

1PHL 371Philosophy of History2
2RES 381Philosophy and Gender Issues2
3PHL 391Philosophy of Culture2


YEAR 3 (300 LEVEL)


1PHL 302History of Contemporary Philosophy2
2PHL 312Hermeneutics and Pragmatism2
3PHL 322Philosophy of Science II2
4PHL 332Social and Political Philosophy II2
5PHL 342Philosophy of Language2
6PHL 352Philosophy of Education2
7PHL 362Philosophy of Environment2



(Choose two from the underlisted courses)

1PHL 372Oriental Philosophy2
2PHL 382Marxist Philosophy2
3PHL 392Philosophy of Development2

YEAR 4 (400 LEVEL)


1PHL 411Existentialism and Phenomenology2
2PHL 421Contemporary Issues in Ethics2
3PHL 431Philosophy of Mind2
4PHL 441Aesthetic Philosophy2
5PHL 451Classics in Ethics2
6PHL 461Philosophy of Mathematics2


YEAR 4 (400 LEVEL)


1PHL 400Long Essay6
2PHL 412Contemporary Analytic Philosophy2
3PHL 422Philosophy of Law2
4PHL 432Islamic Philosophy2





PHL 101    Introduction to Philosophy I

This course is a general introduction to philosophy. It examines the nature of philosophy such as world-view as a philosophy, philosophy as occult knowledge and policies/principles as philosophy. It equally examines definitions of philosophy, origin of philosophy, major periods in the history of western philosophy, branches of philosophy and the methods of philosophy. (2Credit Units).

PHL 111     History of Ancient Philosophy I

This course exposes students to the cradle of western philosophical ideas; it examines some characteristic features of the ancient outlook on the world. Thus the course deals with the cosmological philosophers such Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Empedocles and Democritus; and philosophers of anthropological period such as the Sophists and Socrates. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 121     Introduction to EthicsI

This course introduces students to the fundament ethical concepts such as right and wrong, good and bad, virtues and vices, ethical subjectivism and objectivism. It also treats nature of ethics, major divisions of ethics; Human act and Act of Man; basic constituents of human acts, sources of morality and factors diminishing human responsibility; ethical theories such as hedonism, egoism, deontology, justice and the principle of conscience. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 131     Introduction to LogicI

This course is a general introduction to Logic. It involves the definition of logic, its nature, purpose and importance, a brief history of logic, its divisions, key logical concepts, laws of thought the nature of arguments, definitions, fallacies, nature of propositions, categorical propositions and their pictorial representation and syllogism. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 141     Research Methodology

This course is an in-depth study of the purpose and methods of philosophical research. The course should acquaint students with the most current edition of MLA research and reference method. Emphasis should be laid on selection of topic for research, term papers, seminar, how to locate, analyse, assess and collect information from Library, and other sources such as field-work, and how to document research in the humanities. (2Credit Units).


GSS 101     Use of English I

This course aims at helping students to improve their reading habit, listening and note-taking, written ability, studying and examination skills, and the art of effective argument. (2 Credit Units).

GSS111      Philosophy and Logic

This course is a combined introduction to philosophy and Logic. It treats the nature and definition of philosophy, the purpose of philosophy, philosophy as a science, philosophy and thinking, branches of philosophy; the nature and definition of logic, the purpose of Logic and division of logic; three acts of the mind – simple apprehension, judgment and reasoning, definitions, propositions, fallacies, syllogism and inference (2 Credit Units).


PHL 151 Introduction to Psychology I

This course treats the development of psychology as an academic discipline; principal trends of psychological investigations, psychology as science, divisions of psychology. (2 Credit Units).

RES 161 New Testament Greek I(2 Credit Units)

RES 171 Latin I (2 Credit Units)

From Department of Religions Studies


PHL 102     Introduction to Philosophy II

This course is a continuation of PHL 101. It treats a brief survey of the relationship between philosophy and other fields of study such as Science, Social Science, Arts, Religion and Education; major philosophical systems such as Rationalism, Empiricism, Phenomenalism and Pragmatism; the importance of Philosophy. (2Credit Units).

PHL 112     History of Ancient Philosophy II

This course examines the ancient philosophers of systematic period such as Plato, Aristotle and Post-Aristotelian philosophies such as Cynicism, Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skepticism and Neo-platonism. (2Credit Units).

PHL 122     Introduction to Ethics II

This course focuses on ethical theories of Plato, Aristotle, Hellenistic ethics – Epicureanism and Stoicism; and ethical theories of St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, African Moral philosophy of Communalism and Justice. (2 Credit Units). 

PHL 132     Introduction to Logic II

This course introduces students to the realm of symbolic Logic. It treats the translation of natural language to formal language, logical symbols and their significance such as: statement variables, logical connectives, constants of punctuation, and logical formula; argument forms, truth table construction and test of validity, traditional square of opposition, types of inference including conversion, obversion and contraposition etc. (2 Credit Units). 

PHL 142     Introduction to African Philosophy

This course articulates the meaning and diverse conceptions of African Philosophy, its origin and scope. It seeks to establish the justification of African philosophy. It introduces students to the history of African philosophical ideas. (2Credit Units).


GSS 102     Use of EnglishII

This course requires students to read at least two African novels and also review two books based on African context. (2 Credit Units).


GSS 112     History and Philosophy of Science

This course explains the main scientific discoveries in history to show the importance and relevance of science to human development. It exposes students to the nature of science, the scientific method, basic scientific theories, laws of nature, history of science technology, and invention (2 Credit Units).



PHL 152     Introduction to Sociology I

This course introduces student to the study of sociology as a science. It deals with its definition, nature, subject matter and its brief history, its method and its relation to other social science, sociological theories. (2 Credit Units).


RES 142 New Testament Greek II(2 Credit Units)

RES 152Latin II (2 Credit Units)

From Department of Religious Studies




PHL 211     History of Medieval Philosophy I

This course examines the problems during this period which subordinated philosophy to Christianity. This does not mean that there was no distinction between reason and faith. In this sense, the question of the relationship between reason and faith has played an important role in medieval philosophical ideas. During this period philosophy was pursued by scholars who were priests and theologians – central figures in the history of Christianity. The spirit of medieval philosophy is examined particularly the following philosophers: St. Augustine, Boethius, JohnScotus, Erigena, St. Anselm. (2Credit Units).

PHL 221     African Philosophy II

This course explores the Metaphysical, Epistemological, Moral, Anthropological, Religious and Political problems in African Philosophy. (2 Credit Units).

 PHL 231     Introduction to Epistemology

The aim of this course is to introduce students to the central themes of Epistemology. It deals with the meaning of Epistemology, its nature and scope, its brief history, the notion of human knowledge, philosophical skepticism, the validity of human knowledge and the theories of truth. (2 Credit Units).

 PHL 241     Philosophical AnthropologyI

This course concentrates on general introduction to Philosophical Anthropology. It aims at defining man’s nature – who is man? It deals with the importance of philosophical Anthropology, its meaning, its brief history, its legitimacy and method; phenomenon of human action: life, knowledge, freedom, language. (2 Credit Units).

 PHL 251     Symbolic LogicI

The course examines the symbols of conjunction, negation, disjunction; conditional statements and material implications, Argument forms and refutation by logical analogy, precise meaning of invalid and valid Arguments, testing arguments validity, and truth tables, some common argument forms etc (2Credit Units).

PHL 261     Introduction to Metaphysics

The aim of this course is to give students the general view of metaphysics. It focuses on the origin, growth, nature and scope of metaphysics. It also focuses on the problems of change and permanence, mind-body relationship, freewill and determinism, and the problems of Being, essence and existence. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 271     Application of Basic Methods of Philosophical Analysis

This course examines the technique of applying the basic methods of philosophical analysis of PHL 141 Research Methodology, to analysis of concrete philosophical problems, and philosophical issues in text as well. This course is expected to broaden the student’s analytical horizon to understand and handle difficult philosophical issues. The students are exposed to the use of the following methods: analytical, dialectical, hermeneutic, phenomenological, in their research.


GSS 201     Computer Science

The course introduces and initiates students into computer science of processing, the origin of computer, types of computer and their uses, computer hardware, the basics of window word processing, rudiments of database, the basics of electronics spread sheet, micro-computer graphics, programming and computer language, input and output, storage methods software packages in action and application of computer to arts. (2 Credit Units).


PHL 281     Introduction to Psychology II

This course is the continuation of PHL 151 (Introduction to Psychology I). It deals with motivational aspects of behavoiur, emotional aspects of behavior, psychological theories and development of individual. (2 Credit Units).

CMS 271 Communication for Leadership (2 Credit Units) From the Department of Communication Studies.

RES 281 Religion, Peace and Human Rights (2 Credit Units)

From Department of Religious Studies



PHL 212     History of Medieval PhilosophyII

This course is the continuation of PHL 211. It examines philosophical ideas of St. Abert the Great, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 222     History of Modern PhilosophyI

The course examines cultural factors that gave rise to the development of modern philosophy. The philosophers to be discussed are: Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, Rene Descartes, Benedict Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz; John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 232     Symbolic LogicII

The course focuses on propositional logic, its derivations; predicate logic and its derivations; Quantification theory, probability and induction, set theory, concept of consistency, proofs of consistency and proofs of decidability. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 242     Social and Political Philosophy I

The course involves analysis of political power and authority, sovereignty, equality, freedom and responsibility, revolution, human rights, justice, democracy, capitalism and socialism, African socialism (2 Credit Units).

PHL 252     Philosophyof Religion I

The course explores the phenomenon of religion, definition of philosophy of religion, the attributes of God, Arguments for the existence of God, arguments against the existence of God; that is, the problem of evil, and the question of Atheism, the challenges of Modern Science to the belief in God. (2Credit Units).

 PHL 262     Philosophical Anthropology II

The course focuses on Metaphysical anthropology: Topics to be studied are: human person, self-transcendence, body and soul, immortality and life after death. (2Credit Units).


GSS 202     Nigerian Peoples and Culture

The course is designed to introduce students to cultural, artistic, social, political and economic heritage of Nigeria. Major emphasis is placed on the people and problems of cultural diversity, intergroup relation, nation building, religious and political organizations. The aim of this course is to awaken national consciousness among the students. (2 Credit Units).

GSS 212     Computer Applications


PHL 272     Comparative Philosophy

A comparative study of Asian, African and western systems of thought in relation to such theories as the origin of life, the status of man, the nature of morality, God and the meaning of life, destiny, death and post-mortem states, the problem of cross-cultural understanding. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 282     Introduction to SociologyII

The course examines social institutions: power and Authority, family, education, religion, and social problems such as social inequality, social deviance, social change and crimes. (2 Credit Units).

RES 282 Varieties of Religious Experience and Expression (2 Credit Units)



PHL 301 History of Modern PhilosophyII

The course aims at exposing students to German idealism which was initiated by Immanuel Kant’ philosophers to be studied are: Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, AuthurSchopenhauel; post Hegelian philosophers; Karl Marx, Søren Kierkegaard. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 311 MetaphysicsII

The course is designed to acquaint students with metaphysical problems: substance, appearance and reality, universal and particulars, space and time, causality, metaphysical theories in ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary period of western philosophy, critique of metaphysics (2Credit Units).

PHL 321 Philosophyof Religion II

The course examines Religious language, religious experience (personal religious experience, revelation, scripture and miracles); Morality and religion, godless morality, body and soul, life after death. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 331 Philosophyof Science I

The course treats basic issues in philosophy of science: what is philosophy of science? Philosophy and physical science, metaphysical foundations of science, the nature and methods of science, the nature of scientific truth, hypotheses, theories and scientific laws (2Credit Units).

PHL 341 Special Ethics

Thepurpose of this course is to examine moral challenges to practical issues with regard to human existence. Topics to be discussed are medical ethics, business ethics, work ethics, ethics of war/rebellion/terrorism, legal ethics. (2Credit Units).

PHL 351 EpistemologyII

The course discusses Rationalist and Empiricists’ approach to human knowledge, Kantian mediation between Rationalism and Empiricism, Idealism, the problem of universals, scientific moral and religious knowledge, the existential significance of human knowledge (2Credit Units).

PHL 361 Philosophy of Social Science

The course is philosophical inquiry into the methodology of the social science, the problems encountered in the discipline with regard to man and society. Topics to be discussed include: Historical and Philosophical roots of the social sciences, the modes of social inquiry, relationship between natural science and social science, psychology and the behavioral sciences, our culture or society makes us what we are. (2 Credit Units).


PHL 371 Philosophy of History

Thephilosophical problems involved in historian’s attempt to understand and explain human history. Questions like, is history a science? Is there objectivity in history? What is the nature of historical explanations? areto be answered. Sources of historical knowledge and the meaning of history as a cognitive discipline, causation in history are to be discussed. Philosophers to be discussed include: St. Augustine, Thomas Hobbes, Hegel and Karl Marx. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 381 Philosophyand Gender Issues

Gender issues in human relations, gender relations in such contexts as the family, organizations, education, politics, study of feminist philosophers (2 Credit Units).

PHL 391     Philosophy of Culture

The course introduces the students to the subject matter of culture and the concepts that arise from it. It is a philosophical examination of the nature of culture and how best to philosophically understand cultures. The influence of culture and philosophy and the vice versa, the hermeneutic and postmodernist conceptions of culture, cultural feminism, some popular cultural categories, culture relativism, cultural universalism, inter-cultural dialogues, ethnocentrism etc. shall form the core issues for study. It equally examines some African philosophies of culture and cultural philosophies. (2 Credit Unit).



PHL 302 History of Contemporary Philosophy

This course is designed to acquaint students with the philosophical ideas of the 19th century philosophers and the process philosophy of the 20th century.Philosophers to be studied include: Friedrich Nietzsche, Auguste Comte, Jeremy Bentham, John Staurt Mill, Henri Bergson, Alfred North Whitehead. (2Credit Units)

PHL 312 Hermeneutics and Pragmatism

This course examines two philosophical issues in the 20th century. It discusses origin of Hermeneutics and Pragmatism; Hans-Georg Gadamer, Paul Ricoeur, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James and John Dewey (2Credit Units).

PHL 322 Philosophy of Science II

This course explains the fundamental concepts of Biology and Physics such as Evolutionary Theory, Creationism, Fitness and Adaptationism; space, time and motion, introduction of proability into physics, and the Quantum picture of the world. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 332 Social and Political Philosophy II

This course evaluates the political theories of philosophers and their significance for our contemporary society. Philosophers to be studied include: Plato, Aristotle, Niccolo Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Locke, John Staurt Mill, John Rawls and Julius Nyerere. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 342 Philosophy of Language

Contemporary issues in the Philosophy of Language include: The Nature of Language, Truth and meaning, References and Description, Names and Demonstratives and Metaphor. (2Credit Units).

PHL 352 Philosophy of Education

This course explains an introduction to philosophy of education, the relations of philosophy and education; an examination of basic concepts, principles, nature, goal and forms of education; the implications of the various schools of philosophy for education, philosophic study of theories of education, the problems of education in Nigeria today and their implications for nationhood and national development. (3 Credit Units)

PHL 362     Philosophy of Environment

This course evaluates philosophical issues arising from man’s unprecedented exploration of the environment. It involves philosophical reason for preservation of environment, the existence of man and preservation of environment, the rationality and rights of other animals, philosophical defence of wildlife, preservation of flora, fauna, environmental pollutions: gas flaring, water and air pollution, resource control and philosophical implications. (2 Credit Units).


PHL 372 Oriental Philosophy

This course surveys oriental philosophical traditions and concepts. Important issues in Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Indian and other eastern philosophies are studied. This course therefore covers issues in Hinduism, Budhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism etc. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 382 Marxist Philosophy

This course examines in details philosophical ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to highlight their economic and political theories; emphasis is laid on the development of Marxism and its influence on African continent and other third world countries. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 392 Philosophy of Development

This course is an examination of the key concepts current in the analysis of cultures, politics and economics of the third world nations such as social progress, evolution, modernization; the nature of development, theories of development and their philosophical basis. (2 Credit Units).



PHL 411 Existentialism and Phenomenology

The course is designed to expose students to the main themes of existentialism and phenomenology. Major authors to be discussed include: Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Gabriel Marcel and Martin Buber. (2Credit Units).

PHL 421 Contemporary Issues in Ethics

The course discusses topics in current moral debates of particular relevance and interest to Africa and Nigeria, for example, Technological Transfer, Biotechnology, Capital Punishment, Abortion, Euthanasia, Human Sexuality, Ethnic Discrimination, Topics selected will be studied in critical light of standard ethical theories and with creative vision of human existence. (3 Credit Units).

PHL 431 Philosophy of Mind

The course is an inquiry into the problems of mind and consciousness. Topics to be examined include: Traditional problem of Mind and body, the relation between mental phenomena and the physical world, our knowledge of other minds; Mind, Brain and Machine, Human Consciousness and personal Identity. (2Credit Units).

PHL 441 Aesthetic Philosophy

The course examines philosophical problems arising from artistic expressions, imitation, form, representation and symbols; aesthetic experiences, the value of art, aesthetic and ideology, the contributions of art to society. (2 Credit Units).

PHL 451 Classics of Ethics

The course provides a detailed and critical evaluation of some of the most important ethical theories of the modern period. Authors to be studied include: Kant, Mill, Hegel, Nietzsche, Marx and Bradley. (2Credit Units).

PHL 461 Philosophy of Mathematics

This course considers the nature of philosophy of mathematics, issues bordering on intuition, logicism and formalism; the nature and characterization of mathematical concepts, the relation between logic and mathematics; the nature of mathematics and its relation to concept of necessity, analyticity and certainty; the place of mathematics in human knowledge. (2 Credit Units).



 PHL 400 Long Essay

The Long Essay will involve an independent and original research project in an approved area of philosophy. The aim is to test students intelligence, originality and ability to analyse a philosophical problem into its relevant parts and compartments. The topic of the Long Essay must have received the approval of the department and the faculty, the length (50 pages), style and format of the essay must conform to the standards set by the department and the faculty. (6 Credit Units).

 PHL 412 Contemporary Analytic Philosophy

It was in the early part of the twentieth century and continuing till today that a group of philosophers believed that clarifying language is the most pressing, if not the sole task of philosophy. This movement is known as Analytic Philosophy. For them, analysis is the correct approach to philosophy and that language is its primary subject matter. However, the course examines the philosophical ideas of GottlobFrege, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Willard V. O. Quine. (2Credit Units).

PHL 422 Philosophy of Law

This course explores basic issues in the philosophy of Law, and theories of law. Topics to be studied include: the Concept of Justice, the Nature of Law, the Logic of Rational Reasoning, Legal Responsibility and Morality, Legal Rights and Obligation of Persons; Theories of Law – Legal Realism, Positivism, Legal Formalism, Marxist Theory of Law. (2Credit Units).

 PHL 432 Islamic Philosophy

The course examines in detail the origin of Islamic philosophy, the outstanding philosophers – Alfarabi, Avicena, Averroes and their moral and political theories. (2Credit Units).


Courses shall be evaluated in terms of course units. A course unit is defined as one lecture/ tutorial contact per week throughout a semester.

Courses shall be numbered in levels thus: 101-199, 201-299, 301 -399 and 401-499 corresponding to 100, 200, 300, and 400 levels respectively. Course numbers shall be prefixed by a three- character programme subject code e.g. PHL 101, GSS 202.

Students admitted into the Institute, however, through Direct Entry are to be credited for their higher entry qualifications through specific regulations of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences.


Every student is expected to register for all courses he/she intends to pursue in a semester. Such courses shall be lodged in the prescribed course registration forms and shall be submitted to the HOD. Registration of courses is not deemed complete until a student has personally handed over all the completed registration forms to the HOD who shall duly acknowledge receipt. Failure to complete registration within the prescribed period without reasonable excuse shall attract a penalty, a maximum period of two weeks of lateness as decided by the Senate of the Institute.


A student who abandons his/her studies for a semester without a just cause shall have his/her studentship suspended. Such a student shall have to apply to the senate for re-admission. If re-admission is approved, the student shall be asked to settle in full the fees for the semester missed.

A student who absents himself/herself for two consecutive semesters without just cause shall automatically forfeit his/her studentship.

Any student who fails to register for courses by the final deadline prescribed by senate in the Institute’s Calendar shall not be allowed to take any examination in such courses.

For a candidate to qualify to sit for or write an examination in a course, he/she must have attained at least seventy-five percent (75%) attendance at lectures.


The Grade Point Average System shall be used for the determination of the class mark and the class of Degree.

In order to obtain the Grade Point Average (GPA) of a candidate, the appropriate index (Grade Point) assigned to each range of numerical mark is multiplied by the course unit and the product is added up for all courses registered for total is divide by the total number of units registered for in the programme.

The final aggregate mark for a course shall be a whole number, Letter grades and grade points shall be awarded on the basis of the final aggregate marks as follows:

Percentage ScoresLetter GradesGrade Point (GP)
70 – 100A4.5 – 5.00
60 – 69B3.5 – 4.49
50 – 59C2.4 – 3.49
45 – 49D1.5 -2.39
0 – 44E0

The minimum pass score is 45 and is converted to grade point letter D, equivalent to grade point one. The maximum score of 70 is converted to grade letter A, equivalent to grade point 5.00

Any unpassed compulsory courses may be repeated in the next available semester when the courses are being taught as a carry-over. A failed elective course may be substituted by another passed elective.


This point obtained by the average of all the grade points indicates the overall performance of a student at any stage in the programme. Where the CGPA is below 1.00, the student is placed on probation and may be required to withdraw from the programme if it so continues.

To qualify for a degree, a candidate must have passed all the specified compulsory courses and in addition obtained the minimum number of units prescribed by the Faculty. The class of degree shall be based on the final Cumulative Grade Point Average as follows:

4.50 – 5.00       – First Class

3.50 – 4.49       – Second Class (Hons.) Upper Division

2.40 – 3:49        – Second Class (Hons) Lower Division

1.50 – 2.39       – Third Class (Hons)

1.00 – 1.49       – Fail

Notification of examination results shall be issued to students and their parents or sponsors at the end of each session.


The First and Second Semesters Time-Table shall be made available to students at the beginning of each Semester to guide them in selecting courses, particularly electives, for which they can register. The First and Second Semester examinations’ Time-Table the, however, shall be made available to students at least two weeks before the commencement of each examination.

The FVBC shall have control and general direction of all Institute’s examinations and shall exercise such powers as may be necessary to discharge these functions.


  1. Institute’s examinations shall be held at the end of each Semester for all courses offered in that Semester.
  2. The dates of all Semester examinations shall be fixed by Senate on the recommendation of the Committee of Deans. Such dates shall be published in the Institute’s Calendar; and once published shall not be altered except with the express approval of the Senate.


  1. Question papers for the First and Second Semester Examinations shall be set at the appropriate time. All question papers shall be signed by the Chief Examiner, Course Examiner and by the External Examiner as well.
  2. Examiners must make available to the Head of Department exact sources of any copyrighted materials used in the question papers set by them.
  3. The question papers must be written legibly or typed personally by the examiner himself on the prescribed forms.
  4. The course number and titles of paper in each subject must conform to the numbers and titles in the Institute’s Handbook.
  5. The Chief Examiner in each subject shall be responsible for the correctness of the question papers. All corrected proofs must be signed by the Chief Examiner.
  6. All Examiners are required to strictly preserve the secrecy of question papers at all stages until after the examination. The contents of question papers must not be disclosed to any person other than fellow examiners in the same subject or an official of the Institute specially appointed to deal with question papers.
  7. The Chief Examiner shall arrange for delivery of marked answer scripts by External Examiners where applicable. On no condition should the scripts be forwarded by post or sent abroad.
  8. The authorized scheme for the Institute’s Examination is that approved by the Senate and it is the duty of the Course Examiner to ensure that this scheme is strictly adhered to.
  9. On the completion of the examinations, answer scripts shall be retained by the Head of Department for at least five years after the date of Examination after which they may be destroyed.


Candidates must present themselves at such Institute’s examination for which they have registered under these regulations.

  1. Candidates who fail to do so for reasons other than illness or accident shall be deemed to have failed that examination. Misreading of the time-table shall not be accepted as satisfactory explanation for absence.
  2. As a general rule, no special examination shall be set for any candidate who fails or is unable to complete any examination, but such examination shall be taken at the next available opportunity which may be the following year. The general rule notwithstanding, each case shall be considered on its merit.
  1. Any candidate who on account of illness is absent from the Institute’s examination may be permitted by the Senate on the recommendation of the Faculty Board, to present herself/himself for such examination at a future date provided that:
  1. A student in the Institute shall report any case of illness to the Institute Health Centre at all times,
  2. The Health Centre shall at the end of each Semester submit to the Registrar the names of all students that are hospitalized during the course of the Semester,
  3. When a student falls ill during examinations, he should first and foremost report to the Director, Medical and Health Services before attending any hospital outside the Institute.
  4. A report of sickness should be made to the Registrar within a week and medical certificate for validation of his illness within three weeks which should be forwarded to the department for information.
    1. When a student falls ill before examination, he shall be under an obligation to send a medical report countersigned by the Director, Medical and Health Services within one week of such illness. Any time outside this period shall be considered on its own merit.
    2. A candidate who cannot register for courses due to an illness must ensure that a medical report on his or her illness is forwarded by him/her or his/her parents/sponsor to reach the Dean of the Faculty not later than two weeks after the end of the normal registration period as scheduled in the Institute’s academic Calendar. The Dean should forward the medical report for authentication by the Director of Medical and Health Services.
    3. The Director of Medical and Health Services should within 48 hours, submit a medical report on a candidate who is ill during an examination and is taken to the Health Centre or hospital for treatment.
    4. A candidate applying for leave of absence on medical grounds must forward his/her application together with a medical report to the Dean of Arts. The medical report must be countersigned by the Director of Medical and Health Services.


  • A candidate shall not be allowed during an examination to communicate by word or otherwise with any other candidate nor shall-he/she leave his/her place except with the consent of an invigilator. Should a candidate act in such a way as to disturb or inconvenient other candidates, he/she shall be warned and if he/she persists, he/she may, at the discretion of the invigilator, be excluded from the Examination Room. Such an action by be invigilator must also be reported to the Rector.
  • It shall be an examination offence for any student, staff or any person whatsoever to impersonate a candidate in any Institute’s examination. Any student or staff of the Institute found guilty under this regulation shall be subject to disciplinary action by the appropriate authority of the Institute.
  • It shall be an examination offence for any candidate to take into an examination room or have in his/her possession during an examination any book or paper or printed or written documents, whether relevant to the examination or not, unless specifically authorized to do so. An invigilator has authority to confiscate such documents.
  • A candidate shall not remove from an examination room any paper, used or unused, except the Question paper and such book and papers, if any, as he/she is authorized to take into the examination room.
  • Candidates shall comply with all “the directives to candidates” set out on an examination answer book or other examination materials supplied to them. They shall also comply with the directives given to them by the invigilator.
  • Candidates shall not write on any paper other than the examination answer booklet. All rough work must be done in the answer booklet and crossed out neatly. Supplementary answer booklets, even if they contain only rough work must be tied inside the main answer booklets.
  • When leaving the examination room, a candidate shall not leave his written work on the desk but he shall hand it over to an invigilator. Candidates are responsible for the proper return of their written work.
  • Any candidate or staff who attempts in any way to unlawfully have or give a pre-knowledge of an examination question or to influence the marking of scripts or the award of marks by the Institute or External Examiner shall be subject to disciplinary action by the appropriate authority of the Institute.


If any candidate is suspected of cheating, receiving assistance or assisting other candidates or of infringing any other examination regulation, a written report of the circumstances shall be submitted by the invigilator to the Rector within 24 hours of the examination session. The candidate concerned shall be allowed to continue with     the examination.

Any candidate suspected under regulation (1) shall be required to submit to the invigilator a written report immediately after the paper. Failure to make a report shall be regarded as a breach of discipline.

Where the Rector is satisfied that a candidate has committed a breach of any of these regulations, such candidate shall be deemed to have committed an examination offence and the Rector may;

Authorize the Registrar to give public notice of the fact that such an offence has been committed by that candidate or to give notice to that candidate; OR

Remove the name of the candidate from any pass list; OR

Order that the candidate be suspended from any Institute’s examination for such period as he may decide; OR

Order that the candidate be dismissed from the Institute; OR

Act in all or any of these ways; and

Report any action taken to the Senate and Governing Council.

Where the Rector has reason to believe that the nature of any question or the content of any paper may have become known before the date and time of the Examination to any persons other than the examiners of the paper, the Board of Examiners and any official of the paper, he may order the suspension of the examination or the cancellation of the paper or setting of a new paper and shall report the matter to the Senate. The Rector shall take any disciplinary measure against any student or students involved as he may deem appropriate.

If in the opinion of an invigilator, circumstances arise which render the examination unfair to any candidate, he must report the matter to the Rector within 24 hours after the examination.

Where a matter is reported to the Rector under regulations 4 and 5, he may take such other actions as he thinks fit for the purpose of these regulations. If he directs that another examination be held, that examination shall be the examination for the purpose of the regulation.

Any candidate or member of the academic staff may complain to the Rector that an examination has been improperly conducted. The Rector shall investigate the complaint and report the result of his investigation to the Senate which shall take such actions as it may deem appropriate, including withholding of result or deprivation of the award of degree, etc.


All Institute’s examinations shall be held in rooms approved by the Registrar as suitable for the purpose. The rooms shall be prepared as follows:

As much as possible the Registrar shall endeavour to accommodate all candidates who are to write papers in the same course in one room.

Where all candidates for the same course cannot be seated in one room, and are likely to be split into different rooms, the Dean of the Faculty must be informed in good time to make arrangement for a sufficient number of invigilators.

Sitting arrangement shall be standardized and specific distance maintained between one candidate and the other to prevent cheating.


The Registrar shall arrange with the Director of Medical and Health Services for at least one of the Institute’s Medical Officers to be on call for the purpose of attending to candidates for the whole period of the examination.


Examinations for the degree of the Institute shall be conducted by examiners appointed by the Senate on the recommendation of the Faculty.

Institute’s examiners in each of the Departments within the Faculty shall be appointed annually by the Senate on the recommendation of the Faulty from among the academic staff of the Institute. All Assistant Lecturers shall not normally be appointed an examiner. One of the     Institute’s Examiners shall be designated Chief Examiner.

All appointments of the Institute’s Examiners shall normally be made at the first meeting of the Senate of each academic year, provided that such appointments may be ratified by the Senate as recommended by the Faculty Board,

In the event of an emergency, the Rector may, on the recommendation of the Dean of Faculty appoint an examiner to fill a vacancy provided, that such action is reported to the next Senate meeting for ratification.


The Chief Examiner

Shall be responsible for collection, collation, and harmonization of all the segments of a Paper /or a Course Examination,

Shall ensure that all questions are coordinated and enough copies duplicated for each Course

He shall arrange for the marking presentation of the results to Senate in time.

Other Institute’s Examiners

  1. All examiners are to adhere to the time-table for the submission of questions.
  2. Draft examination questions together with model answers and marking scheme should be submitted to the Head of Department. The Head of Department shall not accept draft examination questions without model answers and marking scheme.

iii.      Examiners shall proof-read their questions till all corrections have been made, so that corrections will not be made in the examination room. A report on corrections made in the examination room shall be made by the Senior Invigilator to the Examiners’ Head of the Department.

  1. Examiners shall collect their scripts from the Head of the Department.
  2. The Examiner or his nominee shall sign for any scripts collected from the Head of Department.
  3. Examiners shall adhere to the time-table for the submission of examination grades and attendance at Examiners’ Board meeting. Examiners are to submit their examination grades to the Head of Department not later than two (2) weeks after the paper has been taken.

vii. Immediately after the closing date for submission of questions and grades, the Head of Department will submit a report on a prescribed format to the Rector on questions and grades submitted or not submitted.


It shall be the duty of the External Examiner; where applicable, to assist in the conduct of the examinations for which they have been appointed and in particular:

To scrutinize draft question papers and to satisfy themselves that the question papers are appropriate having regard to the approved syllabus for the course being examined and the level of the examination; and to recommend such alterations or modifications to the papers as they may think desirable. All question papers must be’ signed by the External Examiner;

To participate in the determination of results and to adjudicate in cases of disagreement among Institute’s examiners in consultation with the Chief Examiner,

To submit to the Rector on the completion of each examination in the subject with particular reference to the following points.

(a)    The general standard of the examination and the performance of the candidates,

(b)        The standard of marking by the Institute’s Examiners;

(c)   A critical appraisal of the conduct of the examination with suggestions for improvement on future occasions.


The final award and the class of degree shall be based on the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) obtained by each candidate in all prescribed courses approved by the Institute. The final Cumulative Grade Point Average shall be calculated on the basis of the total number of course units registered for during the course of the student’s programme.


  1. No examination result is a true result of the Faculty until it has gone through the Faculty Board,
  2. Course examiners shall sign the examination results being submitted to the Head of Department,

iii. The examination results prepared by each Department shall be considered by the Department’s Board of Examiners and signed by the Head of Department,

  1. No Faculty examination result shall be altered except with the written consent of the Dean,
  2. At levels where External Examiners are required, the written consent of the External Examiners shall be attached to the result being amended.
  3. The examination results of graduating students shall always be presented for the consideration and approval of the Senate.


  1. The results of examinations taken in the Institute shall be compiled in the format approved by the Senate, and shall include candidate’s registration number, names and the Individual course results,
  2. On the approval of the examination results by the Faculty Board, provisional results shall be released   by the Faculty Office and pasted on Notice Boards,

iii.      Results of examinations shall be released course by course       stating the candidate’s matriculation number, mark scored in each course and appropriate letter grade,

  1. Names and numbers of failed candidates shall not be included in the results pasted on Notice Boards.
  2. All amended results executively approved by the Head of Department shall come before the Senate for ratification,
  3. On the approval of the results by the Senate, the Head of Department shall release individual results to candidates at the end of each session.


At the commencement of the session, a student shall through the HOD seek a general waiver of the regulations relating to minimum course load of full time studentship if he/she is unable to graduate because of one or two outstanding course(s). Such a student need not carry minimum full-time studentship load. In cases where the courses are few and the circumstances permit, the student may register for only one Semester for which he will pay fees on pro-rata basis.


The Dean shall consider the cases of final year students who are unable to graduate because of non-completion and submission of final year Long Essay with a view to determining whether students involved in the preparation of the Long Essay would have to register as full-time students whilst working on the Long Essay or stay out of Campus and receive supervision on the preparation of the Long Essay.

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